The Data Visualisation Catalogue

Page top Previous Homepage Next

Heatmap (Matrix)



Heatmaps visualise data through variations in colouring. When applied to a tabular format, Heatmaps are useful for cross-examining multivariate data, through placing variables in the rows and columns, and colouring the cells within the table. Heatmaps are good for showing variance across multiple variables, revealing any patterns, displaying whether any variables are similar to each other, and for detecting if any correlations exists in-between them.

Typically, all the rows would be one category (labels displayed on the left or right side) and all the columns would assigned be another (labels displayed on the top or bottom). The individual rows and columns are divided into subcategories, which all match up with each other in a matrix. The cells contained within the table either contain colour-coded categorical data or numerical data that is based on a colour scale. The data contained within a cell is based on the relationship between the two variables in the connecting row and column.

A legend is required alongside a Heatmap in order for it to be successfully read. Categorical data is colour-coded, while numerical data requires a colour scale that blends from one colour to another in-order to represent the difference in high and low values. A selection of solid colours can be used to represent a multiple range of values (0-10, 11-20, 21-30, etc.) or you can use a gradient scale for a single range (for example 0 - 100) by blending two or more colours together.

Because of their reliance on colour to communicate values, Heatmaps are a chart better suited to displaying a more generalised view of numerical data, as it's harder to accurately tell the differences between colour shades and to extract specific data points from (unless of course you include the raw data in the cells).

Heatmaps can also be used to show the changes in data over time, if one of the rows or columns are set to time intervals. An example of this would be to use a Heatmap to compare the temperature changes across the year, over multiple cities, to see where's the hottest or coldest places to live. So the rows could list the cities to compare, the columns contain each month and the cells would contain the temperature values.


Data over time



Similar Charts


Tools to Generate Visualisation

MS Excel and Apple Numbers Amcharts AnyChart Highcharts jChartFX plot.ly R Graph Zing Chart